IP

Pakistan Background

Background

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have helped the two countries begin to work through their issues. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track.

Geography

Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
Location:Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:30 00 N, 70 00 E
Area:total: 796,095 sq km land: 770,875 sq km water: 25,220 sq km

Size comparison:
 
 slightly less than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries:total: 6,774 km border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Coastline:1,046 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:Current Weather mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:arable land: 24.44% permanent crops: 0.84% other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated land:182,300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Current Environment Issues:water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
International Environment Agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life

People

Population:177,276,594 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 6
Age structure:0-14 years: 36% (male 32,907,906/female 30,950,226) 15-64 years: 59.8% (male 55,153,071/female 50,807,705) 65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,563,117/female 3,894,569) (2010 est.)
Median age:total: 21.2 years male: 21.3 years female: 21.2 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:1.513% (2010 est.)
Birth rate:25.09 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate:7.06 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
Net migration rate:-2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)

Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 65.34 deaths/1,000 live births male: 68.61 deaths/1,000 live births female: 61.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 65.62 years male: 63.84 years female: 67.49 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.28 children born/woman (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:96,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:5,100 (2007 est.)
Nationality:noun: Pakistani(s) adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%
Religions:Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%
Languages:Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 49.9% male: 63% female: 36% (2005 est.)

 
Government

Country name:conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan conventional short form: Pakistan local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan local short form:
Pakistan former: West Pakistan
Government type:federal republic
Capital:name: Islamabad geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Independence:14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday:Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution:12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007; amended 19 April 2010
Legal system:based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with
 
reservations
 
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008) head of government: Prime Minister Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008 (next to be held not later than 2013); note - any person who is a Muslim and not less than 45 years of age and is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime minister selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008 election results: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44 votes; Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI elected prime minister; GILANI 264 votes, Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions
Legislative branch:bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 3 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2012); National Assembly - last held on 18 February 2008 with by-elections on 26 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 27, PML-Q 21, MMA 9, PML-N 7, ANP 6, MQM 6, JUI-F 4, BNP-A 2, JWP 1, NPP 1, PKMAP 1, PML-F 1, PPP 1, independents 13; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 124, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 7, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 17; note - 3 seats remain unfilled
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court
Political parties and leaders:Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI] note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International organization participation:ADB, ARF, C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500 FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544 consulate(s) general: Boston (Honorary Consulate General), Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York consulate(s):
 
Chicago, Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200 telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000 FAX: [92] (51) 2276427 consulate(s) general: Karachi consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar

Economy

Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment. Between 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily raised development spending. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 5-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors - despite severe electricity shortfalls - but growth slowed in 2008-09 and unemployment rose. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 20.3% in 2008, and 14.2% in 2009. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated since 2007 as a result of political and economic instability. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis, but during 2009 its current account strengthened and foreign exchange reserves stabilized - largely because of lower oil prices and record remittances from workers abroad. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, but Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures have left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education, healthcare, and electricity production, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):GDP (purchasing power parity): $449.3 billion (2009 est.) $437.5 billion (2008 est.) $421.9 billion (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009
 
 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):GDP (official exchange rate): $168.5 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:2.7% (2009 est.) 3.7% (2008 est.) 6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2009 est.) $2,500 (2008 est.) $2,500 (2007 est.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:agriculture: 20.8% industry: 24.3% services: 54.9% (2009 est.)
Labor force:55.88 million note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2009 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 43% industry: 20.3% services: 36.6% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:15.2% (2009 est.) 13.6% (2008 est.) note: substantial underemployment exists
Population below poverty line:24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 26.5% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:30.6 (FY07/08) 41 (FY98/99)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.2% (2009 est.) 20.3% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):Investment (gross fixed): 18.1% of GDP (2009 est.)

Budget:revenues: $23.21 billion expenditures: $30.05 billion (2009 est.)
Public debt:45.3% of GDP (2009 est.) 51.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture - products:cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries:textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:-3.6% (2009 est.)
Electricity - production:90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - consumption:72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:61,870 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption:383,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports:30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports:319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:339 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production:37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
Current account balance:$-2.42 billion (2009 est.) $-15.68 billion (2008 est.)
Exports:$17.87 billion (2009 est.) $21.09 billion (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities:textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports - partners:US 16.1%, UAE 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, UK 4.5%, China 4.2% (2008)
Imports:$28.31 billion (2009 est.) $38.19 billion (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities:petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:China 14.3%, Saudi Arabia 12.2%, UAE 11.3%, Kuwait 5.5%, US 4.8%, Malaysia 4.1% (2008)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$15.68 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $8.903 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt - external:$52.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $46.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$27.95 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $25.44 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.078 billion (31 December 2009 est.) $1.017 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$23.49 billion (31 December 2008) $70.26 billion (31 December 2007) $45.52 billion (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates:Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar - 81.41 (2009), 70.64 (2008), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005)

 
Communications

Telephones in use:
4.546 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 33
Cellular Phones in use:91.44 million (2009)
Telephone system:general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 91 million in 2009, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; approximately 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2009)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations:20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)
Internet country code:.pk
Internet hosts:226,236 (2009)
Internet users:18.5 million (2008)

Transportation

Airports:
145 (2009) country comparison to the world: 38
Airports (paved runways):total: 98 over 3,047 m: 16 2,438 to 3,047 m: 19 1,524 to 2,437 m: 38 914 to 1,523 m: 17 under 914 m: 8 (2009)
Airports (unpaved runways):total: 47 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 24 (2009)
Heliports:19 (2009)
Pipelines:gas 10,402 km; oil 2,011 km; refined products 787 km (2009)
Railways:total: 7,791 km broad gauge: 7,479 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified) narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge (2007)
Roadways:total: 259,197 km paved: 172,827 km (includes 711 km of expressways) unpaved: 86,370 km (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 15 by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, petroleum tanker 4 registered in other countries: 19 (Comoros 4, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 9, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
 
Military
 
Military branches:Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:17-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2009)
Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 45,829,360 females age 16-49: 41,716,682 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
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